Blessings, and welcome back to Journeys! Today I will put forward an approach for evaluating potential health problems from studying the birth chart and then treating them. It is a method that has taken me over two decades of practice and experimentation to evolve, and has been applied successfully in the lives of many of my friends and clients, but mostly myself. Due to the lengthy nature of this discussion it will be split into two parts, the first part on diagnosis is below and the next part on remedies will be published next month. Both articles are written with somewhat experienced astrologers in mind from the practical point of view, but anyone with an interest in astrology can draw something from them. You should be confident in reading the character nature of a chart and somewhat confident in handling transits and progressions/directions before you tackle this subject in anything other than a theoretical way.
The area of health can be a very dangerous one for astrologers to speak out on, since it can obviously draw fire from professionals who criticise the ‘obvious quackery’ involved. There can also be serious karmic consequences. Additional to this, the power of suggestion and the (largely unconscious) belief people all over the world have in astrology after millennia of its use in daily life are powerful factors that need to be respected and observed. If you tell the average person that they are sick because of something going on in their astrology, you are basically taking their power away by telling them that it is ‘in the stars’, because many people do not understand that they can change the way things manifest. Nevertheless, the matter of health is of such central importance to life that astrology cannot ignore it. When proceeding to give advice in this area, though, you have to tread extremely carefully both in diagnosis and treatment. Unconscious belief in astrology is extremely potent, especially in respect of health and the fear of mortality.
Some key moral and philosophical questions need to be tackled. I will state that it is not advisable to diagnose specific conditions. That’s not your job. In the vast majority of cases, it is also extremely unwise to study the chart looking for the way or time you or someone else will die, for what I hope are obvious reasons. If they are not, this article is not for you. There are times when this kind of insight can be productive, but they are very exceptional and you will know when astrology is called for in such cases. When in doubt, don’t do it. What you should focus on when using astrology in medical matters is not the biological, again that is not your job, you should instead drill down into the astrological that is connected with the illness and try to identify the planetary resonance of the problem. That is your job, and you can be proud of it. It has a long and successful history behind its practise, and the medical profession in general have no idea of its veracity or power, having scorned it long ago, becoming literal hypocrites for their spurning of the advice of the father of medicine, Hippocrates, who unequivocally stated –
“A physician without a knowledge of astrology has no right to call himself a physician”.
He also said, with equal wisdom and insight, that –
“It is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has.”
Remember these words.
‘Health’ is a massively broad and general topic, and even more so when it is viewed from the perspective of astrology which is far more accepting of the relationship between mind, body and feelings than modern medicine is. For the purposes of this writing I am defining health as the quality of life we experience. If we are content with the quality of life we have, we are healthy. Note that we can have missing limbs and still be healthy in this definition – it’s not about having a ‘perfect’ body, at least for the purposes of this writing. A perfect body is one you love being in and are grateful to have been loaned. If you are discontented with the age, state or condition of your body and cannot do anything about those things, you must wake up and realise that you can change the way you feel and think about it, preferably before you make other peoples lives a misery too. A positive attitude and a willingness to learn from the body as its caretaker are essential to most paths to recovery. Whatever discontent or unhappiness there is in the quality of life impacts our overall health, so those grumpy feelings are actually in the way and must be dealt with.
I am also writing this message from the point of view that the quality of life we experience is a direct result of harmony between mind, body and feelings (or soul, if you prefer). It is my view, borne out countless times by experience, that when there is an emotional situation we cannot integrate or a worrying idea that nags us, this eventually manifests somewhere in the physical body. Our bodies can store stories that we have experienced, and when those stories are ignored or repressed, poor health results. These stories become localised in areas of the body which are analogous to the problem. For example, if you have an earache it may be that you have heard something you do not want to hear. The body gives us clues because it wants to be restored to a harmonic balance. Pain and discomfort are therefore interpreted as a beacon drawing the attention of awareness to the area that needs helping.
WHAT PEOPLE WANT TO KNOW
Few people come to astrology expecting a cure for something that ails them. That used to happen, but it is now very uncommon. In most cases I have been approached by people who already know what is wrong with them according to the medical profession, and these people are often looking for a perspective that actually understands what they are going through on levels the medical experts usually ignore or pay little heed to – most people know that there is a direct relationship between the way they feel, what they think, and the state of their physical health, and they sense the deep connection between them in the matter of health, but they do not usually get that impression from their doctors. These people are basically looking for a more holistic perspective on their problem, sensing that this more holistic view is actually more healing because it deals with their whole being and not just the flesh they inhabit.
Other people come with mysteries that they need help with, though – they do not know what is wrong and they have concerns that they need help gaining clarity on. This is quite a common thing people want to know, because astrology promises them answers to such questions. Again, I will state that it is not your job to diagnose a specific illness or condition, but it is your task to identify the astrological factors involved and suggest ways they can be treated. Stick to what you are trained in and always remember that your goal is to empower the person to grasp the situation in a positive manner, activating their own healing potential.
Each part of the health of the body – physical, astral and mental – depends on the whole of the self, not just a part of it, and this must never be lost sight of. In other words, it is from the smooth integration and harmonisation of the physical, astral and mental awareness that our bodily health stems. Therefore in this discussion we must look to not only the health of the physical body but also the health of the emotional and mental body, which means we must study the entirety of the chart.
When a health situation first presents itself to an astrologer they may note the time and draw up a horary chart with a question that addresses the issues. This should probably be done only in the more serious cases where there is a real need on the part of the subject to be given help or there is a mystery that really needs an answer. The reason for this is that the message of the horary will be more significant if the subject matter of the question is significant. The more significant the problem is the greater impact a horary divination can have. Questions about the health can be framed so as to invite a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer from the chart, but this is usually only useful in gaining greater objectivity towards confirming or denying something that is already suspected. A better use of the horary chart in this case is often just to investigate the history of the condition and the potential it has to develop in the future. The rules of horary cover this area pretty well. In times past (particularly the 17th century) a chart would also often be made for what is called ‘decumbiture’, the point at which a patient takes to their bed. This chart would then be read for a diagnosis and treatment. Part of the reasoning here is that it is much simpler to identify this moment than it is to identify when an ailment actually began.
Health problems will most often display clues pointing to a Light/planet and/or a sign, with the more chronic conditions stemming from problems with planets or the Lights. Aspects – especially squares and oppositions and some conjunctions – almost always play a major role. So what you are looking for in the diagnosis is a planetary body or a sign which seems to be ‘holding’ the story. Signs are often easier to identify, because the story will very often be ‘locked into’ the primary area the sign is assigned to – so for example if the problem is with Aries it will very often show up in the head Planetary issues, on the other hand, can be more difficult to diagnose because the planets have a much broader territory in the workings of the body. In general a problem with a sign will show up as something systematic and connected with bodily processes in a specific region (such as digestion or elimination) while planetary problems (including the Lights) manifest more as organic problems (such as kidney stones or heart failure). This distinction is sometimes helpful but too general to be dogmatic about. I present a brief summary of the signs and the Lights and planets and their relationship to the body at the end of this message.
Aside from needing to identify the astrological sensitive point/s, in the initial investigation one of the tasks is to identify whether the problem is natal or not. Very often of course (but not always) it will be a bit of both. For example, if Saturn in Aries in the natal chart is in a square aspect to the Moon in Cancer in the natal chart, and the person concerned has chronic migraines but there are no significant progressions or transits to either Saturn or the Moon and no other chart factor can account for this problem, the chances are that the story is about how the person has handled that square in recent times and (if the case is more serious) throughout the course of their life. More often than not, you will find a transit or a progression involved acting as a kind of amplifier for something that is already in the chart, and in this case it will usually be a heavy transit from Chiron, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune or Pluto or a progression of the Lights or the chart ruler, often in a square or opposition to or from the sensitive area.
If this is the case it is important to identify the influencing effect because this will tell you something about the timing involved – a long, slow, retrograding square from Pluto has a totally different framework to it than a brief brush with the progressed Moon, for example. In many cases correctly analysing this step alone can help you discover how serious the condition is likely to be, how long the person will be dealing with this story, but not always. In addition, once you know what the influencing effect is you also know what the sensitive area is (the part of the chart being influenced) and this is the major goal of this article. Importantly for whatever situation you are trying to assist with, you can then study the history of that sensitive area and build up an astrological case history for the ailment. This will be invaluable.
In general, even though some planets and temples are more sensitive to health issues, any planet or point in the horoscope, anywhere, can come to signify disease, disharmony and affliction, mostly when it is stressed by challenging aspects in the nativity and/or via activations to keys and the energy which is generated is subsequently not healthily released by the self. So, all of our astrology is involved in our health and any of it can become a source of dis-ease or remedy. Some areas of our astrology are far more sensitive to health issues, however.
The Sun and especially the Moon are always sensitive to health matters because they are the Lights of living awareness. The Sun generates (and burns up) the vital energy of the body, generally controlling its quantity, while the Moon distributes and circulates it, generally controlling its rhythm and quality. When both are in trouble so is our health, at least potentially. There are also some regions and their ruling planets which also collect and focus this potential. The 1st temple and ascendant and its ruler can show diseases and conditions which arise from a raw and overloaded expression of essential meaning through the identity, in other words, from too much of that planets or signs qualities dominating, overcharging, blocking and disrupting the flow of life in some way. This will sometimes escape as an ‘accident’ which leads to injury. Conversely, the 6th temple with its planetary occupants or ruler/s can indicate physically caused dis-ease which arises from a corporeal de-materialization of planetary energy, a weakening erosion of its state as it returns to the universal Elements because the body does not accrue or incorporate it well. Thus, the 6th can indicate difficulties absorbing certain properties from food, air, water or light whereby certain substances break down or are lost before the body can use them or it can show a vulnerability to allergies, but also any weakness in the etheric energy field (the total energetic radiation of the physical body).  In other words, generally the 1st can show disease which comes from imbalance through over-energising, the 6th through under-energising or inherent physical weakness. It is possible for one planet or Light to take on both kinds of function in the chart, in which case it becomes doubly efficient at influencing our well being or the lack of it – it becomes a regulator of energy related to health, able to increase or decrease it, especially when it is a Light. Any other chart factors, however, such as a series of energy generating or draining aspects to Mars or another significant object can also result in an under or over-energising of the chart, it’s just that the 1st and 6th temples are two primary places where this occurs.
Opposite to the 6th is the 12th temple which as an indicator of health generally indicates chronic astrally rooted conditions, sometimes also mental conditions, or those which are often mysterious and/or incurable by medical science (because they do not yet acknowledge the principle causes of astral or mental conditions ) or have no permanent known treatment and may require hospitalization. The 6th temple is more those things that require regular treatment or have physical root causes, and the 12th those conditions arising from astral causes which often cannot be completely cured with physical medicines or techniques. Note that physical causes can have astral effects and astral causes can have physical effects. When planets have a dual dharma or form aspects to one another in connection with these temples, i.e. whilst both are carrying the dharma of the 6th and 12th and form an aspect and this leads to illness, then both areas (astral and physical causes) must receive attention to produce a remedy.
Additionally, the 8th temple can show conditions which lay fallow (and hidden) but may eventually lead to serious ill health or death unless treated, but far more commonly it relates to deep emotional and psycho-sexual complexes. Very often these are emotional complexes that involve fear, shock or sexual guilt. Primarily these have astral causes, but not always. The 8th temple is the temple where death (figurative or literal) may approach (not necessarily for us, but as an entity in our lives) and it is where illness arises from the fear of mortality, violence and other astral stigmas such as our own personal karma with the process of death and the fear of letting go. It is most important to stress here that what the 8th shows is not the moment or manner of death but the attitude to its inevitability and the consequences which result from the deep but hidden knowing we all have of what lies just one breath away and beyond.
So I have named the 1st, 6th, 8th and 12th temples as being directly related to health issues. The ancient texts  also connect the 7th temple – the ‘setting place’ – with old age and the end of life, and it may show health conditions affecting the elderly. However, and this is critical, none of these places nor any of the other influences mentioned in this discussion necessarily have to signify health conditions, they all have many other ways in which they can take form. We are only talking about symbols and symbols have many different significations. Bear this in mind as you don’t want to worry about something that is not there.
So, the Moon and Sun – wherever they or their signs lie in a chart – and planets in the above mentioned temples or ruling them can generate very strong and direct effects on our health. Those worlds which are conjunct these named temples opening degrees, their cusps, or alternatively are located inside them will have the strongest potential effects on health, especially when in aspect to one another. Planets making aspects to these objects can also indicate disruption to health, especially if the aspect is a square or opposition. That, in a nutshell, is the weeding out of other chart factors I initially perform, but I never discard those factors which do not make it through this sieve, I always return to them once I have a good picture of these major factors, and I sometimes add things that do not make it through the screen, simply because they are obviously relevant or they strike me as significant.
Note that planets can temporarily move into health related temples later in life as described in The 26 Keys. Most importantly, emphasis on any of these regions in our birth chart or through the keys can show that we work in these areas perhaps as a healer or therapist, or that some of our most significant life experiences will be symbolised by this emphasis, not necessarily that we are to deal with sickness in our own bodies, but very often some aspect of it will mean that eventually, simply because every material form is flawed, none being perfect, and the task of dealing with that is a part of why we are physically born. As with all things our inner attitude is important and the right attitude to things breaking down in the body is first one of acceptance and willingness to learn as otherwise we place an initial block between us and the production of the diagnosis as well as the resolution of the condition. Denial is a powerful factor, perhaps the only real factor, in our quest to claim our wholeness. That does not mean it is easily overcome.
All of this being understood you can build a diagnosis in layers. For me, the first major step in evaluating health more fully is to look at the character of the chart as a whole, noting the rising sign/1st temple and anything else which holds the key to boosting overall health. The balance of Elements (see Natural Balance) give an overall blueprint for our health that is another big initial clue for this first step, a kind of meta-condition that must be borne in mind when considering the rising sign and later the treatment:
THE ELEMENTS & HEALTH
Fire: This Element has the qualities hot, dry and ardent  and is connected with the head and brain region, the immune system, heat, and combustion in the body. When excessively active the Fire Element wears things down, dries them out and leads to more exhaustion, hypertension and inflamed, feverish or allergic reactions. When low, the immune system is not robust and a lack of energy and intensive combustion leads to problems absorbing Elements from the food and problems with a healthy colour and body heat.
Air: This Element has the qualities light, hot and wet  and is connected with the throat and chest region, shoulders and upper arms to the elbow, nervous system, breathing, circulation and balance. When there is excessive activity the over stimulation of Air leads to restlessness, insomnia, dryness and general over-activity and it decreases weight. When the connection is weak, the body has circulatory difficulties, its internal and external balance is affected, and the nervous system is weakened.
Water: This Element has the qualities wet, soft and cold  and is connected with the abdominal region, the forearm from elbow to wrist, all fluids and lubrication in the body, with cold, elimination, reproduction and sensitivity. An excess of Water activity slows metabolism, lowers activity and increases coldness, effectively slowing digestion with retentiveness and thus can lead to weight gain. Its moistness also promotes fungal infection and seeping. A lack of connection to Water in the body leads to problems with the elimination of toxic substances, to hormonal and fluid deficiencies, dryness and other ailments connected with dehydration or the astral realm.
Earth: This Element has the qualities heavy, cold and dry  and is connected with the body from the hips down, including the hands, and internally with its core, the skeletal system, the repair of the body, its overall robustness and resilience and its capacity to grow. An excessive activity of Earth leads to greater gravity, weight and inertia in the body, increases body hair and retentiveness of the Elements from food and slows metabolism. A lack of activity of the Earth Element in the body can lead to problems holding consciousness, dizziness, a lack of awareness or care for what the body needs, cell integrity is weakened and there is sometimes poor nutrition, greater need for longer sleep and a slower repair of and weakened resistance to disorder.
After observing the general effectiveness of the Elements the next step of diagnosis is to begin considering the Elements of the temples that are directly connected with health, the temples which I have named above. We note first the sources of the highlighted Elements (the ones that our natural balance shows dominant or weak) and how they specifically interact in the chart, and then we note which Elements are in control of the 1st, 6th, 8th and 12th temples and we draw analogies from this which are in context with what we already know about the overall effectiveness of the Elements in the chart.
For example, let’s say that Fire is weak and Earth is strong. We would then note any sources of Fire and Earth in the chart and which planets are associated with them. Is there any kind of interaction between them that might allow the weakened Fire to be ‘trained’ by the powerful Earth? Are these Elements or their planets directly linked to the health sensitive temples? Is there a big transit happening to one of those objects? Do any themes or patterns start to emerge from the clues we have on the table so far?
The next things I consider are any attention grabbing aspects. Aspects are formed between planets when they are multiples of 30° apart, the most potent of these being located at 0°, 60°, 90°, 120° and 180°. Each aspect has its own basic nature which describes the quality of the relationship existing between the two objects in aspect and what results from their combination. To focus in on the likely problems we could strip out everything but the squares (90°) and oppositions (180°) and some of the conjunctions (0°). When we look at the relationships that exist between the rulers of the 1st, 6th, 8th and 12th temples or the physical planets in them, some things may also become highlighted. These are all important patterns to reflect on.
So, initially the diagnostic eye of the astrologer falls on these aspects. These are the core of the matrix that relates most directly to potentially problematic health matters. Each of these parts will then in turn be carefully examined to determine their condition and nature and the likelihood of it producing problems for the bodies. Things to look at include the essential dignity of both objects, whether the objects are out of sect, and the current influences applying to it. At no point, however, should other aspects be excluded from the analysis as every aspect will have something to say about health. Many astrologers will also wisely include both of the Lights in this analysis (including all of their aspects), especially when they make opposition, square or conjunction aspects to the health sensitive planets or are in those places. Trines and sextiles and easier aspects can be brought in as remedies for these harsher aspects later, but it should not be forgotten that they can also play a detrimental role – someone with diabetes and Jupiter conjunct Venus in Taurus may have a dietary addiction to sugar, for example. However, we need to weed the garden a lot at this stage and should be ruthless in getting to the most troubling parts. Restricting ourselves to these core aspects, then, produces a starting point, a blueprint that must then be investigated and expanded upon by coming back to the whole of the chart, again and again. This is how the diagnosis proceeds.
After this, the condition of each of the health sensitive temples including their content and rulers must then be thoroughly investigated in light of the type of influence the temple has upon the health. To do this we can proceed by looking beyond the Elements and aspects to note the specific signs and planets which are at the root of most disturbances. If we then add in (when necessary) both of the Lights with their signs (because they are central to health in every case) we will have an outline of the traditional planets and signs connected most directly with health.
To recap –
1) Note the overall impression of the chart, especially the Sun, Moon, chart ruler and rising sign, plus the content of the 1st temple. What strikes you?
2) Note the Balance of Elements and relate it to the above. Briefly look at current transits involving the strong or weak Elements, just noting if they are there.
3) Note the Elements of the 6th, 8th and 12th temples in the same way.
4) Note any attention grabbing aspects, especially squares or oppositions to or from these 4 temples or their rulers. Examine the objects involved in these aspects. Are they being transited, or affected by progression or direction?
5) Look at the Lights and possibly the chart ruler again in the context of everything you have perceived. Then go back to look at the whole of the chart in this context. What seems to be the most striking result of all this? If necessary, go back to step 1 and repeat the study, as often as necessary, until you settle your mind on a few pieces where you identify the most potential trouble.
If you need to go further, and I usually do anyway because it is often part of my work for people, then move from the 4 Elements to the 12 signs. Note the signs of the following objects – the Sun, the Moon, the ascendant, the ascendant ruler, anything in the 1st temple, the 6th temple, the sign of anything in the 6th, the 8th and the sign of anything in it and the 12th and the sign of anything in it (sometimes, a planet can be in one sign in a temple but a different sign can start that temple). This will weed out the 12 signs to a more manageable number, but it is still probably a large list – you may have eliminated only half of the 12 signs at this stage – yet you will often see some signs receiving more testimony than the others, so we can narrow our attention to these signs if we wish.
Next, we can analyse these signs in greater detail. How we analyse them is a matter of choice – we can group them by Elements, by modalities (Active, Stable or Reactive), by Magnetic and Electric bias or by power or type of effect and by many other ways, and whichever way we group them they will reveal a pattern, an overall emphasis or suggestion which can be interpreted from the point of view of health.
When we break it down further this way we can see not only which signs but also which planets are most involved in health issues. These are the planets (or Lights) found in or ruling these signs, especially if they also happen to be a Light, a ruler of the 1st temple, or a ruler of the 6th, 8th or 12th temples. Thus, a list of planets and their connections to health can now be drawn. The outer worlds and Chiron as well as the Dragon deserve a small mention at this stage. The so called ‘modern rulers’ of the signs Scorpio, Aquarius and Pisces – Pluto, Uranus and Neptune respectively –contribute supporting factors to the temples their signs govern and the signs they are in and can potentially become even more significant than the traditional rulers. Chiron acts to focalise all of the potential for medicine and healing present in the chart and is therefore a major factor in all modern astrological healing techniques. The Dragon does not usually imply anything directly related to health, yet can do so if that is the karma it expresses by its aspects and its placement in the temples or signs, all of which which can bring that potential to it.
At the end of this process you should have at least an idea of where the problems likely lie and then you can see if they match anything in the experience of the person who needs the help. Questions you should have answers to at this point include:
- Which of the two Lights is weaker in the system as a whole?
- Which Element dominates and which is overwhelmed or not represented strongly?
- Which planet or planets (try to settle on 1 or 2) seems the most potentially troubling for health?
- What sign seems to take all the heat as far as health is concerned?
- Which aspect seems to have the most to do with health, given the way the chart is structured?
- Does any of this resonate with what the person seeking help is experiencing? Does the subject experience problems in these areas, and if so, what are those problems? If so, make this part of the chart the primary concern for this time.
- Is there anything in the chart that could be drawn upon as a healing power to soothe that part of the chart? This initial look can help you start to gather the most important clues.
If you have some doubt about your diagnosis, observe what happens each month when the Moon crosses over the sensitive area of the chart. This will often provide a strong confirmation. Each of these bodies is particularly sensitive to displaying certain types of illnesses depending on their sign and aspects, which I am going to tell you about shortly. Do remember however that all these things are also the charts physicians! Once you have these pieces in hand, you have done your job, and you may more securely proceed to the treatment or remedying of the problem at the astrological level. This is a vast area which I will discuss next month.
THE LIGHTS & PLANETS IN THE BODY
• The Lights: involved in all kinds of health concerns but mainly focused on raising or supplying vital energy to the physical, astral and mental bodies. The Moon also affects the water content in the body as well as all its secretions and the Sun has a hand in the circulatory system.
• Mercury: Relates to mental energy and its effect upon our health. Tends to manifest in mental health issues and the nervous system, sometimes mobility.
• Venus: Tends to astral illnesses and emotionally sourced disorders (which does not mean they are not physical, just not normally physical at the root). Venus also tends to indicate a rich diet is involved or some other form of decadence.
• Mars: Tends to affect blood, especially blood pressure, the muscles and problems which affect body heat, motivation or energy or cause fevers or inflammations.
• Jupiter: Tends to influence the liver and the adrenal system as well as body fat, and brings swelling.
• Saturn: Tends to astra-mental problems like depression, suicidal thoughts and feelings, blockages, unconscious bad health, sorrows and deprivations. Physically can indicate aging problems, loss of appetite and bone deficiencies.
• Uranus is connected to the nervous system and brings erratic behaviour or irregularity.
• Neptune is connected to the pineal and pituitary gland, also to allergies and viruses. .
• Pluto is connected to cell integrity and the immune system and sexually transmitted diseases (like Venus).
• Chiron is connected to the holistic integration of the self and thus to health in general.
• The Dragon is connected to the body areas of the signs where it is placed.
THE SIGNS IN THE BODY
• Aries: the head and skull in general (but the head is complex and expresses many different analogies, for example the lower jaw is of Taurus).
• Taurus: the neck and throat, the sense of taste
• Gemini: the shoulders, arms, hands and lungs
• Cancer: the stomach, womb, ribs, and chest (breasts).
• Leo: the heart, the spine, the circulatory system and the blood.
• Virgo: the intestines and abdomen, the digestive organs, the spleen.
• Libra: the kidneys and the urinary system.
• Scorpio: the reproductive organs and the eliminatory system.
• Sagittarius: hips and thighs.
• Capricorn: the knees, shins and mid- leg, the skin.
• Aquarius: the ankles and calves, oxygenation of the system.
• Pisces: the feet, the lymphatic system.
Note that there is a reflex association between opposite signs which maps directly onto the human body – for example, the male testes descend as the voice breaks (this shows the reflex association between Taurus and Scorpio, which govern the neck and genitals). This means that sometimes conditions that stem from Leo, for example, will manifest in symptoms of Aquarius.
 This differs from the astral body, which is the foundation of the physical body.
 See the summary of the earlier (and lost) texts (purportedly by ‘Hermes Trismegistas’) which were written by Thrasyllus in the time of Emperor Tiberius.
 The 3 qualities of the Elements given at the start of each Element are drawn from the writings of the Roman writer Marcus Manilius, who wrote in the first decades of the 1st century.
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